• Race to a Cure Authors

Mental Illness Induced by Quarantine

COVID-19 is causing many situations that contribute to widespread emotional distress, leading to an increased risk for psychiatric illnesses. Health care providers have an essential role in addressing these emotional outcomes as part of the pandemic response.


A psychologist's office.


Causes and effects of mental illness


Public health emergencies may affect all individuals' health, safety, and well-being, causing insecurity, confusion, emotional isolation, and stigma. They also affect Communities owing to economic loss, work and school closures, inadequate resources for medical response, and deficient distribution of necessities. These effects may translate into a range of emotional reactions (such as distress or psychiatric conditions), unhealthy behaviours (such as excessive substance use), and non-compliance with public health directives (such as home confinement and vaccination) in people who contract the disease and in the general population. Extensive research in disaster mental health has established that emotional distress is ubiquitous in affected populations—a finding sure to be echoed in people affected by the Covid-19 pandemic.


After disasters, most people are resilient and do not succumb to psychopathology. Indeed, some people find new strengths. Nevertheless, in "conventional" natural disasters, technological accidents, and intentional acts of mass destruction, a primary concern is post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) arising from exposure to trauma. Medical conditions from natural causes such as life-threatening viral infection do not meet the current trauma criteria required to diagnose PTSD. Still, other psychopathology, such as depressive and anxiety disorders, may ensue.


Who is most vulnerable to mental illness?


Some groups may be more vulnerable than others to the psychosocial effects of pandemics. In particular, people who contract the disease, those at heightened risk for it (including the elderly, people with compromised immune function, and those living or receiving care in congregate settings), and people with preexisting medical, psychiatric, or substance use problems are at increased risk for adverse psychosocial outcomes.


Health care providers are also particularly vulnerable to emotional distress in the current pandemic, given their risk of exposure to the virus, concern about infecting and caring for their loved ones, shortages of personal protective equipment (PPE), longer work hours, and involvement in emotionally and ethically fraught resource-allocation decisions. Prevention efforts such as screening for mental health problems, psychoeducation, and psychosocial support should focus on these and other groups at risk for adverse psychosocial outcomes.


Possible stressors


Beyond stresses inherent in the illness itself, mass home-confinement directives (including stay-at-home orders, quarantine, and isolation) are new to Americans and raise a concern about how people will react individually and collectively. A recent review of psychological sequelae in samples of quarantined people and health care providers may be instructive. It revealed numerous emotional outcomes, including stress, depression, irritability, insomnia, fear, confusion, anger, frustration, boredom, and stigma associated with quarantine, some of which persisted even after the quarantine was lifted.


Specific stressors included:

  • More significant confinement duration.

  • Inadequate supplies.

  • Difficulty securing medical care and medications and resulting financial losses.


In the current pandemic, the home confinement of large swaths of the population for indefinite periods, differences among the stay-at-home orders issued by various jurisdictions, and conflicting messages from government and public health authorities will most likely intensify distress.


A study conducted in communities affected by severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in the early 2000s revealed that although community members, affected individuals, and health care workers were motivated to comply with quarantine, emotional distress tempted some to consider violating their orders.


Support systems


Opportunities to monitor psychosocial needs and deliver support during direct patient encounters in clinical practice are significantly curtailed in this crisis by large-scale home confinement. Psychosocial services, which increasingly provide in primary care settings, are being offered to utilize telemedicine.


In the context of COVID-19, psychosocial assessment and monitoring should include queries about COVID-19–related stressors (such as exposures to infected sources, infected family members, loss of loved ones, and physical distancing), secondary adversities (economic loss, for example), psychosocial effects (such as depression, anxiety, psychosomatic preoccupations, insomnia, increased substance use, and domestic violence), and indicators of vulnerability (such as preexisting physical or psychological conditions).


Varying degrees of support


Some patients will need a referral for formal mental health evaluation and care. In contrast, others may benefit from supportive interventions designed to promote wellness and enhance coping (such as psychoeducation or cognitive behavioural techniques). In light of the widening economic crisis and numerous uncertainties surrounding this pandemic, suicidal ideation may emerge and necessitate immediate consultation with a mental health professional or referral for possible emergency psychiatric hospitalization.


On the milder end of the psychosocial spectrum, many experiences patients, family members, and the public have can be appropriately normalized by providing information about usual reactions to this kind of stress and pointing out that people can and do manage even amid dire circumstances. Health care providers can offer stress management suggestions, link patients to social and mental health services, and counsel patients to seek professional mental health assistance when needed. Since media reports can be emotionally disturbing, contact with pandemic-related news should be monitored and limited. Because parents commonly underestimate their children's distress, open discussions should be encouraged to address children's reactions and concerns.


Mental health for health care providers


As for health care providers themselves, the novel nature of SARS-CoV-2, inadequate testing, limited treatment options, insufficient PPE and other medical supplies, extended workloads, and other emerging concerns are sources of stress and can potentially overwhelm systems. Self-care for providers, including mental health care providers, involves being informed about the illness and risks, monitoring one's stress reactions, and seeking appropriate assistance with personal and professional responsibilities and concerns—including professional mental health intervention if indicated. Health care systems will need to address individual providers' stress and on general operations by monitoring reactions and performance, altering assignments and schedules, modifying expectations, and creating mechanisms to offer psychosocial support as needed.


Conclusion


The Covid-19 pandemic has alarming implications for individual and collective health and emotional and social functioning. In addition to providing medical care, health care providers have an essential role in monitoring psychosocial needs and delivering psychosocial support to their patients, health care providers, and the public — activities that should integrate into general pandemic health care.


References


Xiong, J., Lipsitz, O., Nasri, F., Lui, L., Gill, H., Phan, L., Chen-Li, D., Iacobucci, M., Ho, R., Majeed, A., & McIntyre, R. S. (2020). Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on mental health in the general population: A systematic review. Journal of affective disorders, 277, 55–64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2020.08.001

Giorgi G, Lecca LI, Alessio F, Finstad GL, Bondanini G, Lulli LG, Arcangeli G, Mucci N. COVID-19-Related Mental Health Effects in the Workplace: A Narrative Review. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Oct 27;17(21):7857. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17217857. PMID: 33120930; PMCID: PMC7663773.

Lahav Y. Psychological distress related to COVID-19 - The contribution of continuous

traumatic stress. J Affect Disord. 2020 Dec 1;277:129-137. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2020.07.141. Epub 2020 Aug 10. PMID: 32818776; PMCID: PMC7416772.

Luo M, Guo L, Yu M, Jiang W, Wang H. The psychological and mental impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on medical staff and general public - A systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychiatry Res. 2020 Sep;291:113190. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113190. Epub 2020 Jun 7. PMID: 32563745; PMCID: PMC7276119.



Article author: Christine Sun

Article editors: Sherilyn Wen, Edie Whittington